Kwamayeza, i-nebulizer (American English) okanye nebuliser (isiNgesi saseBritani) sisixhobo sokuhambisa iziyobisi esisetyenziselwa ukuhambisa amayeza ngendlela yempazamo efumakwe kwimiphunga. I-Nebulizer zihlala zisetyenziselwa unyango lwe-asthma, cystic fibrosis, COPD kunye nezinye izifo zokuphefumla okanye ukuphazamiseka. Basebenzisa ioksijini, umoya ocinezelelweyo okanye amandla e-ultrasonic ukwaphula izisombululo kunye nokumiswa kwiidrophu ezincinci ze-aerosol ezinokuthi zithintelwe ngokuthe ngqo kumlomo wesixhobo. I-aerosol ngumxube wegesi kunye namasuntswana aqinileyo okanye olwelo.

Ukusetyenziswa kwezonyango

Enye indlela ye-nebulization

Izikhokelo

Izikhokelo ezahluka-hlukeneyo ze-asthma, ezinje ngeGlobal Initiative yeZikhokelo ze-Asthma [GINA], Izikhokelo zase-Bhritane malunga nolawulo lwe-Asthma, Izikhokelo ze-Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidlines, kunye nezikhokelo zase-United States zoNyango kunye neNyango ye-Asthma nganye icetyiswa ukuba kufakwe amanzi kwi-inhalers. Unyango lwe-nebulizer ehlangulwe. Umbutho waseYurophu oHloniphekileyo uyavuma ukuba nangona i-nebulizer isetyenziswa ezibhedlele nasekhaya bacebisa ukuba uninzi lwolu sebenziso lusenokungabi bungqina-bungqina.

ukusebenza

Ubungqina bamva nje bubonisa ukuba i-nebulizer ayisebenzi ngokugqithileyo njenge-in meters-inhalers (MDI) ene-spacers.I-MDI ene-spacer inganikeza izibonelelo kubantwana abanesifuba. Ezo ziphumo zibhekisa ngqo kunyango lwe-asthma kwaye ingekuko ukusebenza kwe-nebulisers ngokubanzi, njenge-COPD umzekelo.Ngokuba i-COPD, ngakumbi xa kuvavanywa ukunyanga okanye ukuhlaselwa ngamaphaphu, akukho bungqina bubonisa ukuba i-MDI (ene-spacer) ihambisa amayeza Isebenza ngokugqithileyo kulawulo lweyeza elinye kunye nebulizer. Umbutho waseYurophu wokuphendula ubalule umngcipheko onxulumene nokuzala kwesayizi ye-Droplet okubangelwa kukuthengisa izixhobo ze-nebulizer ngokwahlukileyo kwisisombululo se-nebulizer. Bafumanise ukuba le nkqubo ingahluka kubungakanani be-droplet ubukhulu be-10 okanye ngaphezulu ngokutshintsha kwinkqubo yokungasebenzi ngokufanelekileyo kwe-nebulizer ukuya kwenye esebenzayo.Izibonelelo ezibangelwa zi-nebulizer, xa kuthelekiswa nee-MDIs ezinee-spacers (inhalers), yayizinto zabo zokuhambisa iidosi ezinkulu kwindawo umgangatho okhawulezayo, ngakumbi isifo se-asthma; Nangona kunjalo, idatha yakutshanje iphakamisa ukuba amaqondo okubonakalisa amaphaphu ayinto enye. Ukongeza, olunye ulingo lufumanise ukuba i-MDI (ene-spacer) inethamo elisezantsi elifunekayo lesiphumo sonyango xa kuthelekiswa ne-nebulizer (jonga uClark, et al. Ezinye izikhombisi) .Ukusetyenziswa komoya kwisifo semiphunga esinganyangekiyo, i-nebulizer isenokusetyenziswa ukunyanga. Imiba ebangelwa kukuphefumla kwezinto ezinetyhefu. Omnye wolu hlobo lonyango kunyango lwe-inhalation ye-hydrofluoric acid (HF) enobuthi. I-calcium gluconate lunyango lokuqala lodibaniso lwe-HF eluswini. Ngokusebenzisa i-nebulizer, i-calcium gluconate inokuhanjiswa kwimiphunga njenge-aerosol yokuchasana nobutyhefu bomoya obushushu we-HF.

Ukutsalwa kweAerosol

Iimpawu zokumiswa kwemiphunga kunye nokusebenza kakuhle kwe-aerosol ixhomekeke ubukhulu becala kumaleko okanye ubungakanani bento yedrophu. Ngokubanzi, incinci incindi yamandla amakhulu amathuba ayo okugqobhoza kunye nokugcinwa. Nangona kunjalo, kumasuntswana amahle kakhulu angaphantsi kwe-0.5 μm ubukhulu kukho ithuba lokuphepha ukubekwa ngokupheleleyo kwaye ugxothwe. Ngo-1966 iQela loMsebenzi kwiLung Dynamics, elalixhalabisa ikakhulu ngeengozi zokunxibisa ubuthi bendalo, lacetyisa imodeli yokufakwa kwamasuntswana kwimiphunga. Oku kucetyiswe ukuba amasuntswana angaphezu kwe-10 μm ubukhulu afakwe idiphozithi emlonyeni nasemphangeni, kuba ubukhulu be-5- μm ububanzi butshintshela ukusuka kumlomo buye kufakwa komoya, kwaye amasuntswana amancinci angaphezulu kwe-10 μm ubukhulu kwiindlela zomoya ezisezantsi kwaye kufanelekile kwii-aerosols zamayeza.

Iindidi ze-nebulizer

Ijet nebulizer yanamhlanje

Isithuba se-0.5% ye-albuterol sulfate inhalation isisombululo se-nebulizer Pneumatic Jet nebulizer Esona sisetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo zii-nebulizer jet, ezikwabizwa ngokuba "ziiatomizer". [10] IJet nebulizer ziqhagamshelwa sishubhu kukubonelela ngerhasi exinzelelweyo, ihlala icinezelwe ngumoya okanye ioksijini ukuba ihambe ngevaya ephezulu kusetyenziswa iyeza eliguquguqukayo libe yi-aerosol, ethi ke yona idibane nesigulana. Okwangoku kubonakala ngathi kukho umkhwa phakathi ko gqirha ukukhetha ukuhanjiswa ngugqirha we-Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) kwizigulana zabo, endaweni ye-jet nebulizer evelisa ingxolo engaphezulu (kaninzi ngama-60 dB ngexesha lokusebenzisa) kwaye ayithambeki kangako ngenxa ye ubunzima obukhulu. Nangona kunjalo, i-jet nebulizer ziqhelekile kwizigulana ezibhedlele ezinobunzima bokusebenzisa i-inhalers, njengakwiimeko ezinobuzaza zesifo sokuphefumla, okanye uhlaselo olukhulu lwesifuba. Inzuzo ephambili ye-nebetizer yejeet inxulumene nendleko zayo zokusebenza eziphantsi. Ukuba isigulana kufuneka sisebenzise iyeza imihla ngemihla ukusetyenziswa kwe-pMDI kunokuba kubiza. Namhlanje abavelisi abaliqela bakwazile ukunciphisa ubunzima be-jet nebulizer ukuya kwi-635 gram (22.4 oz), emva koko baqala ukuleyibhelisha njengesixhobo esiphathwayo. Xa kuthelekiswa nazo zonke ii-inhalers ezikhuphisanayo kunye ne-nebulizer, ingxolo kunye nesisindo esinzima nangona kunjalo kukude kube kukudonsa okukhulu kwi-jet nebulizer. Amagama orhwebo kwii-jet nebulizer abandakanya iMaxin.Soft mist inhaler Inkampani yezonyango i-Boehringer Ingelheim iphinde yaqulunqa isixhobo esitsha esibizwa ngokuba yi-Ansimat Soft Mist Inhaler ngo-1997. Itekhnoloji entsha ibonelela ngedosi yokulinganisa kumsebenzisi, njengoko amanzi esezantsi kwe-inhaler ejikeleze iwotshi ye-180 ngesandla, eyongeza uxinzelelo ekwakheni entwasahlobo ejikeleze isixhobo esiguquguqukayo solwelo. Xa umsebenzisi esebenze ezantsi kwe-inhaler, amandla asuka entwasahlobo ayakhutshwa kwaye anyanzelise uxinzelelo kwisikhongozeli solwelo esiguquguqukayo, ebangela ulwelo lutshize ngaphandle kwe-2 nozzles, ngaloo ndlela besenza inkungu ethambileyo ukuba ibethelwe. Esi sixhobo sibonisa ukuba akukho nto ihambelana negesi kwaye akukho mfuneko yebhetri / amandla okusebenza. Ubungakanani obumiselweyo be-droplet kwimpazamo bulinganiselwa kwi-5.8 micrometer, enokubonisa ezinye zeengxaki ezinokubakho zonyango olwenziweyo ukuya kufikelela kwimiphunga. Uvavanyo olulandelayo luye lwangqina ukuba akunjalo. Ngenxa yesantya esiphantsi kakhulu senkungu, iSoft Mist Inhaler enyanisweni inentsebenzo ephezulu xa ithelekiswa nepMDI yesiqhelo. Ngo-2000, kwaqaliswa iimpikiswano kwi-European Respiratory Society (i-ERS) ukucacisa / ukwandisa inkcazo yabo ye-nebulizer, njengoko iSoft Mist Inhaler entsha ngokwemihlaba yezobugcisa inokuhlelwa njenge "nebulizer eqhutywa ngesandla" kunye "ne-pMDI eqhutywa ngesandla. ".Electrical Ultrasonic wave nebulizer Ultrasonic wave nebulizer zenziwa ngo-1965 njengohlobo olutsha lwebulizer ephathekayo. Itekhnoloji ngaphakathi kwe-nebulizer ye-ultrasonic yamaza kukuba ne-oscillator ye-elektroniki ivelise isantya esiphezulu se-ultrasonic, ebangela ukungcungcutheka komatshini kwento yepiezoelectric. Le nto inyibilikisayo inxibelelana nendawo yokugcina amanzi kunye nobushushu bayo obuninzi obuvulekileyo banele ukuvelisa umphunga.Njengokuba besenza i-aerosols ukusuka kumbane oshukumayo endaweni yokusebenzisa umoya ocinezelayo, banobunzima obujikeleze iigram ezili-170 (6.0 oz) . Olunye uncedo kukuba i-ultrasonic vibration iphantse ithi cwaka. Imizekelo yolu hlobo lwale mihla lwee-nebulizer zezi: I-Omron NE-U17 kunye ne-Beurer Nebulizer IH30.Ukuvavanya i-mesh teknoloji Kwenziwe into entsha ebalulekileyo kwimakethi ye-nebulizer ngo-2005, ngokudalwa kwe-ultrasonic Vibrating Mesh Technology (VMT). Ngobu buchwephesha i-mesh / membrane ene-1000-7000 yemingxunya egrunjelwe imingxunya ishukuma phezulu kwindawo yokugcina amanzi, kwaye ke oko kuxinzelela ukungqubana kwamachaphaza amnandi ngemingxunya. Obu buchwephesha busebenza ngakumbi kunokuba nento esebenzayo ye-piezoelectric emazantsi echibi lamanzi, apho ke amaxesha amancinci onyango nawo ayafezekiswa. Iingxaki zakudala ezifumaneka kunye ne-nebulizer ye-ultrasonic, enenkunkuma eninzi engamanzi kunye nokufudumeza okungafunekiyo kolwelo olunamayeza, ziye zisonjululwe ngabathengisi abatsha be-mesh. Ii-nebulizer ezikhoyo ze-VMT zibandakanya: I-Pari eFlow, i-Respironics i-Neb, Beurer Nebulizer IH50, kunye ne-Aerogen Aeroneb. Njengoko ixabiso le-nebulizer yeVMT ye-ultrasonic ingaphezulu kuneemodeli zisebenzisa itekhnoloji yangaphambili, uninzi lwabavelisi luyaqhubeka ukuthengisa i-nebetizer yejeyiti yeklasi.

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