Isixhobo sonyango sisiphina isixhobo esenzelwe ukuba sisetyenziselwe unyango. Ke ngoko yintoni umahlula isixhobo sonyango kwisixhobo semihla ngemihla sisisongelo saso. Izixhobo zonyango zinceda abaguli ngokunceda ababoneleli bezempilo ukuba baxilonge kwaye banyange abaguli kwaye bancede abaguli ukuba boyise ukugula okanye izifo, ukuphucula umgangatho wabo wobomi. Ukubaluleka kweengozi kubalulekile xa usebenzisa isixhobo ukulungiselela iinjongo zonyango kwaye ke nezixhobo zonyango kufuneka zibonakaliswe zikhuselekile kwaye zisebenza ngokuqinisekiswa okufanelekileyo ngaphambi kokulawula oorhulumente bavumela ukuthengiswa kwesixhobo kwilizwe labo. Njengommiselo oqhelekileyo, njengoko umngcipheko wesixhobo esihambelana noko unyusa inani lovavanyo olufunekayo ukuseka ukhuseleko kunye nokusebenza kakuhle kuyenyuka. Ukongeza, njengoko ingozi ehambelana nayo inyusa inzuzo enokubakho kwisigulana nayo kufuneka yonyuke.

Ukufunyanwa kwezinto ezinokuthathwa njengesixhobo sonyango ngokwemigangatho yale mihla ukuya kuthi ga ngoku c. Ngowama-7000 BC e-Baluchistan apho ugqirha wamazinyo wase-Neolithic wasebenzisa i-flint-tipped drill and bowstrings. [1] Ukufundwa kwezinto zakudala kunye noncwadi lwaseRoma lubonisa ukuba iintlobo ezininzi zezixhobo zonyango zazisetyenziswa ngokubanzi ngexesha leRoma yamandulo. [2] E-United States kwakungekho de kufike uMthetho wokutya, ichiza, kunye neCosmetic Act (FD&C Act) ngo-1938 ukuba izixhobo zonyango zilawulwa. Emva phayaa ngo-1976, i-Medical kifaa izilungiso kwi-FD & C Act yamisela ukumiselwa kwesixhobo sonyango kunye nokongamela njengoko sisazi namhlanje e-United States. [3] Ukulawulwa kwesixhobo sonyango eYurophu njengoko sisazi namhlanje kwaqala ukusebenza ngonyaka ka-1993 ngento eyaziwa njenge-Medical kifaa Directive (MDD). Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesixhenxe ku-26 ku-Matshi ngo-2017 isixhobo se-Medical isixhobo (MDR) sathatha indawo ye-MDD.

Izixhobo zonyango ziyahluka kokubini ekusebenziseni ezenzelwe zona kunye neempawu zokusetyenziswa. Imizekelo isusela kwizixhobo ezilula, ezinomngcipheko omncinci njenge-depressors yolwimi, ii-thermometers zonyango, iigloves ezilahlayo, kunye nendawo yokulala ukuya kwezixhobo ezinobunzima, ezibekwe emngciphekweni kwaye zibekelwa ubomi. Umzekelo omnye wezixhobo ezinobungozi obuphezulu zezi zeSoftware Engenisiweyo ezinje ngee-pacemaker, kwaye ezinceda ekuqhubeni uvavanyo lwezamayeza, ukufakelwa, kunye nobuhule. Izinto ezintsonkothileyo njengezindlu zokubambeka ngokudibeneyo zenziwa ngenkqubo emide yokutsala kunye nokutsala okungathathi ntweni. Uyilo lwezixhobo zonyango lulucandelo oluphambili lomhlaba wobunjineli bobuchwephesha.

Imakethi yezixhobo zonyango kwihlabathi yafikelela kwi-US $ 209 yezigidigidi ngo-2006 [4] kwaye yayiqikelelwa ukuba phakathi kweedola ezingama-220 kunye neebhiliyoni ezingama-250 zeedola zaseMelika ngo-2013. [5] IUnited States ilawula ~ 40% yemakethi yehlabathi elandelwa yiYurophu (25%), Japan (15%), kunye nehlabathi liphela (20%). Nangona i-Europe ngokudibeneyo inesabelo esikhulu, iJapan inesabelo sesibini esikhulu selizwe. Eyona ndawo inkulu kwezentengiso eYurophu (ngolungelelaniso lwesabelo sentengiso) yeyaseJamani, i-Italiya, France ne-United Kingdom. Umhlaba wonke ubandakanya imimandla efana (ngokulandelelana) i-Australia, Canada, China, India, ne-Iran. Eli nqaku lixoxa ngento eyila isixhobo sonyango kule mimandla eyahlukeneyo kwaye kulo lonke eli nqaku kuya kuxutyushwa ngalo ngale mimandla ngokulandelelana kwabo kwintengiso yehlabathi.

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