I-ITE ichaza ukuba uNcedo lokuva ngeendlebe, zibandakanyiwe i-ITC, IIC, CIC zoncedo lokuva. Uninzi lwazo zincinci kwaye zincinci. Ngenxa yobungakanani bazo, kunzima ukubafumana xa abantu benxiba kuyo. Ngelixa izixhobo ezincinci zokuva zinokuba nobulumko ngakumbi, unokufumanisa ukuba ezinye zezitayile ezikhulu ezindlebeni kulula ukuzibeka okanye uzishenxise ikakhulu unokuba unengxaki ye-dexterity. Oku kunokwenza izixhobo zokuva ezindlebeni zibe lula ukuzicoca nokuzigcina. Kwaye i-IIC yeyona nto incinci yokuncedisa ukuva incinci kakhulu bahlala ngaphakathi komsele wendlebe apho kungekho mntu unokubona. Izixhobo zokuva nge-ITC okanye ze-CIC zincinci. Ziqulathwe ngokupheleleyo kwiimeko ezincinci ezilingana nenxalenye okanye ngokupheleleyo ngaphakathi kwendlebe. Abantu abaninzi bayazithanda ezi zinto kuba zinokusetyenziswa ngokulula ngomnxeba. Nangona kunjalo, izixhobo ze-IIC, CIC kunye ne-ITC kunzima ukuphatha kunye nokulungelelanisa ngenxa yobukhulu bazo obuncinci. Ukongeza, basenokungalungelanga ezindlebeni ezincinci, kwaye banconyelwa kuphela kubantu abadala abanobuthathaka bokulahleka kokuva okuphakathi.

Umahluko kwi-BTE Aid Aid
Nokuba yeyiphi i-ITC, IIC, CIC, nkqu izixhobo zokuva ze-ITE, ngenxa yendlela yokunxiba, bahluke ngokupheleleyo kwisitayela seBTE. Abantu abaninzi bakhetha isixhobo sokuva esihlala endlebeni ngokupheleleyo. Olu hlobo lubizwa ngokuba sisixhobo se-ITE okanye isixhobo "Endlebeni". Izigidi zabantu zinxibe le ndlela yokuphumelela. Ihlala ilukhetho lokuqala lwesixhobo esitsha sokumamela izixhobo ngenxa yokuba ezinye zeendlela zokukhetha ze-ITE zithathwa njengoyilo olungabonakaliyo.

Xa kulungele izigulana ezine-BTE "Behind the Ear", siyakwazi ukubeka amandla amaninzi (ukukhulisa ngakumbi) kwisixhobo sokuva. Oku kudla ngokufuneka njengoko ukulahleka kwezigulana kukonyuka ngokuhamba kwexesha. Olu luyilo lukwanesibonelelo esongeziweyo sokulawula ingxelo (leyo ikhalayo iyamcaphukisa) ngamanye amaxesha onamava kuyilo lwe-ITE.

Ukusetyenziswa kwe-ITE okanye ii-BTE zokuncedisa ukuva kuxhomekeke kwiimfuno zabathengi bakho, isitayela se-ITE asibonakali ngakumbi kwaye isitayile seBTE sikhulisiwe ngakumbi kodwa siyabonakala ngakumbi. Ngokubanzi, sicebisa ukuba abantwana basebenzise uhlobo lwe-BTE kunye nokusetyenziswa kwabantu abadala BTE kunye ne-ITE.

Izinto zokuncedisa ukuva endlebeni (i-ITE) (jonga umzobo 3-9) zihlelwe kwi-ITE-egcwele i-shell yokuncedwa kukuva kwendlebe yonke ngokwesikhundla sayo endlebeni. Zintathu iindidi zezinto zokuncedisa ukuva nge-ITE-half shell aids kunye ne-ITE-low profile audiids kwezinye iindlebe zesipikili sendlebe. Kwindlebe yokuva
Uncedo lokuva lungelolona lusetyenziselwa kakhulu ukuva ngokwenziwa okwenziweyo okwangoku, kwaye uncedo lokuva lufuna ukwenziwa ngokweziqhoboshi ezahlukeneyo ngokodidi lweendlebe zezigulana ezahlukeneyo.
Kukho ezinye izixhobo zokuncedisa ukukuva ngendlebe. Ubungakanani bezinto zokuncedisa ukuva ezilungiselelwe. Lowo ulinxibileyo kufuneka enze ubumbeko lwendlebe oluhambelana nalo, aze alushukumise uncedo lokuva kuludwebu lwendlebe aze alunxibe endlebeni.

Ubume besiseko sohlobo lwe-in-the-Ear kunye ne-in-the-Ear iindlebe zoncedo ziyafana, kwaye zidityaniswa yindlu, umbhobho, isikhululo esidibeneyo sesiphaluka, indawo yokubeka umbane, kunye nomamkeli (jonga umfanekiso 3 -10).
1. Igobolondo
Zombini iindlebe zokuva ezindlebeni nasemgudwini ziindawo ezinobunjani obujongwa ngulo mfo wendlebe wesigulana (kwiindlebe kubandakanya nethambo lendlebe), kunye nentshukumo yoncedo lokuva ifakwe kwigobolondo. Izinto ezibonakalayo zesilondolozi ziyafuneka ukuba zingabinetyhefu, azibangeli ukuba zijongane nazo, zizinzile kwindalo, azichaphazeleka lula ziqondo lobushushu, njl, akukho lula ukuba ubudala, kwaye zinobuso obugudileyo ngaphandle kokungcoliseka.
Uhlobo lokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe lweendlebe lufakwe kumlawuli wevolumu, ifayile yohlengahlengiso lwetoni, ifayile yokulungiswa kwesandi esiphezulu, kunye nokunye okunje, kunye nezinto ezinokufakwa ezindlebeni okanye ezindlebeni zokuva. amaqhosha okutshintsha. Ukongeza, ezinye izinto zokuncedisa ukuva zikwaphethe intambo yokutsala kwicala elingaphandle, kwaye kufakwe isandi sokuhombisa kwindawo yokuphuma yesandi.
2. umboko

Umzobo: Uncedo lwendlebe lwendlebe

1-Umthamo wolawulo we-potentiometer
I-2-Microphone
I-3-Amplifier
I-4-Trimmer potentiometer
I-5-Shell
6-Umamkeli

Umzobo: Ulwakhiwo lweendlebe eziva ezindlebeni nasezimalini


Ngenxa yefom enkulu yendlela yokuva endlebeni kunye nokuncedisa ukuva iindlebe, kunokufakwa imibhobho emibini. Izinto zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe epheleleyo zinzima ukuyifaka imibhobho emibini.
3. Umdibaniso wesekethe odityanisiweyo
Ngenxa yokusetyenziswa kwezinto ezincinci zekhompyuter kunye nokwanda kokudityaniswa kwe-elektroniki, izixhobo zokuhlanganisa ezihlanganisiweyo zezixhobo zokuncedisa ukuva ziya zisiba mbi ngakumbi. Ngokukodwa, kusetyenzwa ngomqondiso wedijithali, onokongeza imisebenzi emininzi ngaphandle kokongeza izinto ezongeziweyo kwaye ungene kwindawo encinci yokuncedisa ukuva. Oku kubonelela ngeemeko zokwenza ezincinci nezingcono ngokupheleleyo kwii-canal zokuncedisa ukuva.
4. ibhetri
Izinto zokuncedisa ukuliva endlebeni zihlala zisebenzisa iibhetri ze-A13, izixhobo zokungeva endlebeni zisebenzisa iibhetri ezingama-A312, kunye neearhente zeendlebe ezisebenzisa ngokupheleleyo kwindlebe zisebenzisa i-A10 okanye iibhetri ze-A5.

1. Utshintsho kwiiFrikwensi eziQhelekileyo zeNdlebe yeNdlebe engaphandle
Ukuphindaphindwa kokuphindaphindwa kwendlela yokuvavanywa kwabantu abadala yangaphandle imalunga ne-2000 ukuya kwi-4000 Hz. I-avareji ye-theoretical yi-3359 Hz yamadoda kunye nama-3440 Hz kwabasetyhini. I-frequency yangaphandle yendlebe ephakathi emele ukulinganiswa nguBu Xingkuan ngu (2583 ± 323) Hz, kunye nesiphumo sokufumana kweendlebe zangaphandle ze-canal resonance frequency kwi-2500 Hz inokufikelela kwi-11-12dB.
Xa isiguli sifaka uncedo ezindlebeni zokuva, imvamisa yexabiso eliphakame kakhulu lesandi sokufumana isandi kwimikrofoni siku-5118 ~ 5638Hz, esibonisa ukuba uncedo lweendlebe eziva endlebeni lusenefuthe elithile kwindlebe eseleyo. , kodwa igcinwe ngokusisiseko kwifom yesiqhelo yendlebe yomntu. Isikhundla esihlala rhoqo, kunye nokukwazi kwabo ukubabuyisela imilinganiselo ephezulu. Ke ngoko, ukunxiba izinto zokuncedisa ukuva kunokuphucula ukuqina kwentetho yomguli.
2. Ijika lokuphendula elihamba rhoqo loncedo lokuva endlebeni
Elona xabiso liphezulu lendlela yokuphendula umjikelo wenkonzo yokuva endlebeni imalunga ne-2500-2700Hz, esondele kwincam yethoni yendlebe yangaphandle kumntu oqhelekileyo. UGao Jianlin kunye nabanye bakholelwa ukuba uluhlu lwamanqanaba okusabela okuphindaphindiweyo kwezixhobo zokuva iindlebe zisezimalunga nama-200 ~ 7500Hz, kwaye uluhlu lwamaxesha aphindaphindiweyo lubanzi, oluphantse lugubungele indawo yolwimi endlebeni yomntu. Ijika lokuphendula rhoqo liguquguquka kancinci, kwaye ijikajika libhetyebhetye, elihambelana nendlebe yomntu. Impendulo yokuvakala ngokufanayo, ngoko inokuphucula iziphumo zokuva.
Uvavanyo lukaGao Jianlin lubonisa ukuba imbuyekezo yokungeva kwi-1000Hz, 2000Hz, kunye ne-4000Hz yezixhobo zokuva ezindlebeni kunye nezinto zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe iku-25-33dB, ngelixa imbuyekezo yokuva kwi-250-500Hz ingama-20-24dB. Imbuyekezo yangaphambili yokufumana imbuyekezo inkulu ngakumbi kuneyokugqibela.
3. Inzuzo yesandi kwindawo yemikrofoni
Kukho imiqolo emininzi kwicala elingaphandle le-auricle yomntu, eyila iqela elifanayo lezibuko ze-concave. Banokubonakalisa kwaye banciphise isandi esivela kwihlabathi langaphandle, ngaloo ndlela besonyusa uxinzelelo lwesandi oluvela kwihlabathi langaphandle kwindawo yombhobho. Xa kuthelekiswa nezinto zokuncedisa ukuva ezindlebeni, imakrofoni yoncedo lokuva endlebeni ifumaneka endlebeni, kwaye isiphumo sayo sokuncedisa ukuva siphuculwe ngulo mgaqo. Ukuma kwe-anatomical ye-earnails kunye / okanye kwindlebe yangaphandle ehlala ngaphakathi kwendlebe kunye nendlebe yokuva endlebeni kuyahlukile, kwaye indawo yemikrofoni yeentlobo ezahlukeneyo zezixhobo zokuva iindlebe zisahlukile, ke zona izandi zabo zokufumana isandi zahlukile. UGao Jianlin ufumanise kulingo lokuba inzuzo yesandi kumbhobho wesiza sendlebe ese-5.94 ukuya ku-6.46dB SPL, ngomndilili (6. 29 ± 1.09) dB SPL; Uncedo lokuva endlebeni ngu-6.90-9. Umndilili ngu (8. 08 ± 1.83) dB SPL; indlebe evulekileyo yeendlebe zokuncedisa ukuyiva ngu-8 80 ~ 9. 30dB SPL, kwaye umndilili ngu (9. 01 ± 1.73) dB SPL. Umahluko phakathi kwezi zinto zintathu.
Oku kubonisa ukuba inzuzo yesandi kwindawo yemagnethi yendlebe epheleleyo yokuncedisa ukuva yeyona inkulu, ilandelwe kukuva ngendlebe yokuncedisa kwindlebe, kunye noncedo lokuva endlebeni. Kuba eli xabiso lifunyenwe xa uncedo lokuva lungakhange luphume, izandi zesandi kwindawo yemikrofoni zinxulumene ne-anatomy, iimpawu zomzimba ze-auricle, kunye nesimbo soncedo lokuva, kwaye ayinanto yakwenza namandla e uncedo lokuva.

Izibonelelo zoncedo lokuva endlebeni xa kuthelekiswa nendlebe kunye noncedo lokuva ngendlebe olupheleleyo zezi:
Uluhlu olulungele ukulahleka kwendlebe lubanzi kwaye amandla okuphuma makhulu.
② Unokufaka ngokulula izinto ezongeziweyo ezinjengeemakrofoni ezimbini, iikhoyili zepuzzle.
Kulula ukuyibuyisela ibhetri kwaye uhlengahlengise ivolumu kuneleva yokuva ngendlebe kunye noncedo lokuva ngendlebe olupheleleyo.

Ukungancedi izinto zokuncedisa ukukuva ngendlebe kubandakanya:
④ Ngenxa yokuba i-canal yendlebe yomntwana ayikhulelwanga kwaye ayilolongi, iqokobhe kufuneka lifakwe enye endaweni yesiqhelo, ke ayifanelekanga ukuba isetyenziswe.
Idityaniswe noncedo lwendlebe lwangemva kwendlebe, kwaye iselulungelweni lokukhupha ingxelo.
Kwabadala nakwabo banezandla eziguqukayo, akukho lula ukutshintsha ibhetri kunye nokulungelelanisa ivolumu.
④ Nangona ibekwe endlebeni, imilo yayo isemkhulu kakhulu kwaye kulula ukubona.
⑤ Cerumen kulula ukungena noncedo lokuva kusetyenziswa umngxuma wesandi, okukhokelela kumonakalo wentshukumo yangaphakathi.
Hearing Indlebe yesikhonkwane sendlebe yokuva indlebe izalisa yonke ikhonkco lendlebe, kwaye abanye abaguli banokuziva bengonwabanga kuba ulusu kakhulu luvaliwe.
⑦ Njengazo izinto zokuncedisa ukuva ze-BTE ezichazwe ngaphambili, ukusiwa kweendlebe kunokwenzeka ngokulula

Uluhlu lwamandla oovimba-iindlebe zokuva iindlebe ngokubanzi luyi-40 ukuya kwi-110 dB. Ukudibanisa iimpawu zayo acoustic kunye neenzuzo kunye nokungahambi kakuhle, kwizinto zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe zihlala zilungele izigulana ezinokukuva okuphakathi kodwa zinokungafuni ukunxiba. Ukongeza, kuba banokufakela ngokulula ngakumbi iinxalenye ezincedisayo, zilungele ngakumbi ukusebenza koncedo lokuva izigulana eziphezulu; kubantu abakhulileyo nakwabakhulileyo okanye abaguli abanezandla eziguqukayo kunye nokulahleka kakhulu kwendlebe, unokujonga nokukhethwa kwezixhobo zokuva ezindlebeni.

  • Izinto zokuncedisa ukukuva ezindlebeni

Indawo yokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe ibhekisa kuhlobo loncedo lokuva olucwangciswe kwi-canal yangaphakathi yomguli kwaye iqala kwi-cavity yendlebe kwaye ime kufutshane nejika lesibini.

  • Ukwahlula-hlulwa kwezixhobo zokuncedisa ukuva

Izinto zokuncedisa ukuva i-canal (i-ITC) (jonga umfanekiso 3-11) zikwanazo izinto zokuncedisa ukuva. Ngokungafaniyo nezinto zokuncedisa ukuliva ezindlebeni, izinto ezinceda ukuva endlebeni zifumaneka kumgodi wendlebe wesigulana. Ngokobungakanani, izinto ezincedisa ukuva ngendlebe zinokuphinda zahluleke kwi-canal yendlebe (i-ITC), umsele omncinci wendlebe (i-ITC encinci okanye umsele omncinci), kunye nomsele wendlebe ozeleyo
(CIC) zontathu iindidi zezincedisi zokuva. Izinto zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe epheleleyo zinemigangatho emibini. Kuphela kuxa le migangatho mibini ifikelelweyo apho banokuthi babizwe ngokuba ziisistim zokuva ngendlebe, kwaye olona ncedo lubalaseleyo kunye nokuphuma kunokufunyanwa. Okokuqala, indawo esecaleni kwecal canal yeendlebe yokuncedisa eboniswe kuMfanekiso 3-11 kufuneka okungenani ibe kufutshane nomphetho wendlebe ongaphandle okanye i-1 kuye kwi-2 mm ngaphakathi komsele wendlebe; okwesibini, indawo yodidi kufuneka ibe ngaphakathi kwe-5 mm ukusuka kwindawo ephezulu ye-eardrum.
Ukuba indlebe epheleleyo yokuva ngendlebe ayikwazi ukufezekisa la manqaku mabini angentla, inokufumana kuphela izibonelelo zecalfa epheleleyo yendlebe, kwaye inokubizwa kuphela ngokuba ngoncedo lokuva ngendlebe oluncinci. Isiza se-canal yokuva ngendlebe ikwindawo yomsele wendlebe, kodwa sikhulu kancinci kuneslebe esizeleyo sendlebe kunye nezinto ezincinci zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe.

Uncedo lwe-canal yokuva ngendlebe ayinalo kuphela uphawu lwe-acoustic ekhankanywe ngaphambili ngoncedo lwendlebe yokuva, kodwa ikwangqinelana ngakumbi neempawu zomzimba wendlebe yendlebe, kwaye ukuphucula kwayo ukuva kubangcono.
1. Utshintsho kwiiLwimi eziQhelekileyo zoMlomo
Xa isiguli sifaka uncedo lwendlebe yokuva ngendlebe, imvamisa yexabiso eliphakame kakhulu lesandi sokufumana isandi kwimikrofoni iku-4733-5179 Hz, esondele kufutshane nendawo ezihlala kuyo i-resonance peak yangaphandle yendlebe kubantu abaqhelekileyo. .
2. Utshintsho kwisiphumo se-resonance emva kokuvalwa kwendlebe
Inyama yangaphandle yecandelo lokuhlola elingaphandle. Ngokwethiyouki yecoustic, ityhubhu evaliweyo ineziphumo zokuphinda zikhulise amaza esandi amaxesha angama-4 ubude betyhubhu. Umzekelo, ubude betyhubhu ngu-2.5 cm, kwaye amandla acoustic amaza omjikelezo we-resonance yi-10 cm, ngokwesantya sama-344 m. ukubala, ubude be-resonance yi-3440Hz. Ikholamu yomoya ekwi -hubhu ibuyela kumaza esandi esi siphindaphindiweyo, ukuze ingcinezelo yesandi iphindaphindwe kwisandi esisekupheleni kwetyhubhu.
Indlebe yokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe "ibhlokisa ityhubhu" yecanari yangaphandle yangaphakathi, inqumle ubude bendlela ephicothiweyo yangaphandle, kwaye ishukumisela ubungqingqwa obuqhubayo phambili. Kule meko, ulwazi oluvakalayo lwendandi yokuthetha luyandiswa ngokufanelekileyo, ukuze isisombululo somphicotho siphuculwe kakhulu.
3. Isiphumo sokugcina i-aura-kunye nemvelaphi yesandi

Owona msebenzi ophambili we-auricle kukususa, ukufumana, ukuqokelela kunye nokunyusa izandi zangaphandle. I-auricle eqhelekileyo inomsebenzi wokuqokelela isandi, kwaye isakhiwo esingalinganiyo kumphezulu we-auricle sivelisa imbonakalo eyahlukileyo kwimithombo yesandi ukusuka kulwakhiwo olwahlukileyo kunye nokuphakama, kwaye inefuthe lokuphakanyiswa kwesandi kwisandi sobukho obuthile. Umsebenzi we-auricle unokuvelisa umphumo wokucoca, ojongwa ukuba udlale indima ebalulekileyo ekufumanekeni komthombo wesandi. Uncedo lokuva ngendlebe lufumaneka kumsele wendlebe kwaye lugcina ubume obuqhelekileyo be-auricle, ke oko kuyanceda ukukhulisa isandi ngokwendalo kunye nokufumana umthombo wesandi.
4. Iziphumo zomngxuma wesandi kufutshane ne-eardrum kwinzuzo yesandi
Okokuqala, ngenxa yokuba umgama phakathi komngxunya wokuva ngoncedo lokuva kunye ne-eardrum umfutshane, isandi esandisiweyo sinokusebenza ngokuthe ngqo kwi-eardrum, ngoko ke ukuphambuka kuncinci. Okwesibini, iindlebe zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe zibekwe kumsele wendlebe, okukhokelela ekunciphiseni komthamo we-canal yangaphandle yendlebe. Ngokobudlelwane obungenanto phakathi komthamo kunye noxinzelelo, ivolumu iyancipha kwaye uxinzelelo luyenyuka. Ke ngoko, xa unxiba inaliti yokuva ngendlebe, uxinzelelo lwayo lonyuka.

Xa kuthelekiswa nezinto zokuncedisa ukuva ezindlebeni nasezindlebeni, izibonelelo zoncedo lokuva ngendlebe zibandakanya:
Ubume bancinci, enokuhlangabezana neemfuno zobuhle zezigulana, kwaye zikhululekile ukunxiba.
② Ibekwe kumsele wendlebe, igcina ulwakhiwo oluqhelekileyo lwe-auricle, ehambelana kakhulu neempawu zomzimba kunye ne-acoustic yendlebe yomntu, kwaye inceda ukuphucula ukufunyanwa kwesandi kunye nokwenza isandi sendawo.

Ukungancedi kwenkonzo yokuva ngendlebe kubandakanya:
① Njengazo izinto zokuncedisa ukuva ezindlebeni, ekubeni i-canal yendlebe yomntwana ingaphuhliswanga kwaye ingekho milo, iqokobhe kufuneka lifakwe endaweni yesiqhelo rhoqo, ke abantwana kufuneka bayisebenzise ngononophelo.
Aid Indlebe yokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe ifanelekile kuphela kwizigulana ezinobuthathaka okanye ukulahleka okuphakathi kokuva. Okwangoku, iindlebe zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe ngamandla amakhulu zilungele kuphela kwizigulana ezinomgangatho wokuva ophakathi kwe-90 ukuya kwi-95 dB.
③ Ibhetri kunye nesiphawuli sesandi sendlela yokuva endlebeni sincinci kunoncedo lwendlebe yokuva, ngenxa yoko kunzima ngakumbi ukuqhuba.
④ Njengoko kukhankanyiwe ngaphambili, ngenxa yendawo encinci yangaphakathi, iindlebe zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe zinako ukuvelisa ingxelo ye-acoustic, kwaye ayinakho ukunxulumana nenkqubo ye-FM.
Njengazo izinto zokuncedisa ukuva ezindlebeni, izixhobo zokuva ezindlebeni zibekwe kumsele wendlebe kwaye zichaphazeleka kakhulu ziimpembelelo zeradon.
Njengazo izinto zokuncedisa ukuva ezindlebeni, zinokuvelisa iziphumo zokuva iindlebe.

Okwangoku, amandla eendlela eziqhelekileyo zokusebenzisa iindlebe zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe zihlala zingaphantsi kwe-80 dB, kwaye ezinye iintlobo zeemodeli zamandla aphezulu endlebe yokuncedisa ukuva iindlebe zinokufikelela kwi-90 ukuya kwi-100 dB, kodwa izicelo zekliniki azikho banzi. Izinto zokuncedisa ukuva zisetyenziswa ngoku kumaqela alandelayo:
① Izigulana ezincinci, ezinobuthathaka bokuphulukana nokuva okuphakathi, kwaye zineemfuno eziphezulu zokuncedisa ukuva.
Abantu abaneminyaka ephakathi kunye nabadala abanobunzima bokuphulukana nokukuva okuphakathi, izandla eziguquguqukayo kunye neemfuno eziphezulu zokufumana uncedo lokuva kunye nokubonakala.
③ Umgangatho wokulahleka kweendlebe uphantsi kwe-80-85dB. Kwizigulana eziva ijika leendlebe elisezantsi ngesantya esiphantsi kunye nokulahleka okuphezulu kwendlebe, iindlebe zokuncedisa ukuva ngendlebe zinokunika imbuyiselo ephezulu yokufumana imbuyekezo.

Ebonisa zonke iziphumo 11

Bonisa ibha esecaleni